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An Overview Of The Volcanoes In Hawaii And Their Histories

Hawaii’s volcanoes form on a chain called the Hawaiian Emperor Seamounts chain, a series of hotspots that are located in the sea. The hotspots reach a peak, forming a shield, then they die out, reappearing along the trail to create a new eruption. Tuzo WILSON developed this theory in 1963. The earliest hotspots date back to 5.1-billion-years old volcano on Kauai. The “Big Island” has been a focal-point in the field of volcanic science for 400,000 years. The younger age of the island supports the hotspot hypothesis, since it is the most active on the chain.

The first stage of the shield volcanic cycle is called the submerged pre-shield. The submarine vents are responsible for this. Submarine shields are formed when the low-volume material is accumulated into rising earth. During this time the magma is cooling and it deteriorates the calderas. The shield is able to rise above the original ocean bed because this pattern keeps repeating and recycling. When the volcano reaches sea level, oxygen is exposed and more eruptions occur. Sub-aerial stage: the eruptions are less violent and more frequent. It is possible to see a shield-like formation above sea level as the magma cools. In the post-shield phase, the eruptions are much larger and sticky than during the sub-aerial stage. The rejuvenated phase is where there are small eruptions and the lava plumes can be seen infrequently. The coral isoll stage marks the end for the volcano. The volcano is eroded and shattered by activity and erosion to the sea level. This is what is seen on Kauai.

Five volcanoes are located on the Big Island. Kohala’s age is estimated at one million years. However, the oldest rock that has been recorded as being emitted is only about 460,000 years. Kohala is a zone that poses less of a risk due to the last eruption occurring 120,000 year ago. Kohala had a major experience when the post-shield was revealed. A massive landslide sent debris 81miles out to sea. This volcano traps lava with low viscosity. Large faults are the main geographic feature, which was caused by a landslide. The shield has been completed and the land is now in post-shield. This period has lasted for 245,000 of its years. After completing its shield stage, the land has been able for life to flourish. The lava-covered floor is covered with a thick layer of moss, which traps rainwater. This ecosystem is the most flourishing on the island, with 155 native species.

Mauna Kea also exists on the island of Hawaii and is a volcano with similar fissures to Kohala. Its most distinctive features are its cinder conical shape and glacial activity. The most recent evidence of explosive eruptions is the cinder cones. They are aged between 4500-9000 years. The small temperature drops during the last glacial period allowed snow to accumulate on the volcano’s peak. Snow has formed moraines in the caldera. Moraines are soil and sand deposits. The most windy, alpine and rocky environment found on the island is ideal for research.

Haulalai’s most notable eruption is the 1801 large one. Lava poured out of the collapsed northwestern rift zone and flowed to the northwest, west and southwest. First, the lava flowed 16 km towards the present-day Kona International Airport. Second, the lava flowed 6km to the sea. Second, there was the 1929 quake swarm. This geological anomaly saw thousands of tiny earthquakes triggered by small magma motions under the volcanic cone. The event, which caused damage of $100,000, was the last indication of volcanic activity that threatened Haulalai. At least one earthquake of magnitude 4 occurs in the region every year.

Mauna Loa occupies a large part of the big island’s landmass. Mauna Loa is the world’s largest volcano and occupies over? The lava has built up a large, steep caldera that has caused the peak to reach a height 13 679 feet. Its lava reaches the ocean eight time since 1868. It has had 33 eruptions, the last of which was in 1984. The vogs that accompany these eruptions can be quite thick. It is possible that the magma could become unstable causing a flank to be disrupted. Mauna loa caused a magnitude 8 in 1868, and a 7.2 magnitude in 1975. Scientists also believe that tsunamis are generated by the seismic activity.

Kilauea is the fifth volcano on the island. It’s the most active volcano in the world. This volcano, which is located on the big island, has a very unpredictable eruption pattern, despite the short pause between 1934-1952. According to research, the rock is between 300,000 and 600,000 years. This makes it the youngest part of the island. This bulge appears to be on the flanks of Mauna Loa. There is some volcanic and earthquake activity that comes from this neighboring area. Its most recent caldera, which is about 500 years old, is in the shield stage. The volcanic ecosystem has been changed by frequent eruptions. Acid rain is created when precipitation and volcanic ash, which contains sulfur dioxide, mix. Tephra and volcanic ash also cause soil contamination, which prevents plant growth. Three of nine Hawksbill Sea Turtle nesting areas are located on the coast. It is becoming a greater concern in terms of the environment, and biologically. This is due to the increasing frequency and size of eruptions.

Hawaiian lava consists of a feldspar rich trachyte that contains 65% silicon. Scientists have an interest in this type of lava, as it is present on every island and not just the biggest one. According to the United States Geological Survey, the biggest island volcanoes are classified as follows: Mauna Loa, Kilauea, Haulalai 4, Mauna Kea 8, and Kohala 9. The higher the number is the lower the overall risk. The geological information and volcanic activity on the island are fascinating. A new shield is forming along the Emperor Seamount Chain. This zone has been named Lo’ihi. All five volcanoes are in contact and together form the largest and most populated island along the chain. This is a great example of how geological processes create islands around the world.

Reviewing Money Jungle Jazz Album That Features Duke Ellington

Money Jungle with Duke Ellington’s piano is the album which I will review. United Artists released this album in February 1963, but it was originally recorded on September 17, 1962. It’s interesting to note that this album was only released in the year 1963 with seven songs. In 1979 Blue Note Records released the album again on CD including two alternate takes and four unreleased songs. Blue Note released it again in 2002 with improved quality, especially the drums. The album was re-released with two additional alternative takes, bringing the total number of songs from seven to fifteen. This album has a jazz genre called post-bop. This album was chosen for review because Duke Ellington’s name is well known in jazz, and the album only consists of a rhythm section.

Max Roach, Charles Mingus, and Ellington were all on this album. The three musicians have all left a strong legacy. It is fascinating to watch them working together. Duke Ellington has composed the majority of songs on the album. The exception is a song called “Caravan”.

As “Caravan” is a song we use in class, I was compelled to review the album. This song was composed by Juan Tizol. Max Roach starts the song with a simple yet consistent rhythm on toms. Mingus then joins on bass, and Duke Ellington finishes the song on piano. Ellington’s first entrance has a deep tone. This is effective because the bassist and drummer aren’t complicated at the beginning. Drums make the transition from Latin music to Swing easily. Roach uses only toms for the Latin part of the song. The transition from the Latin to the Swing rhythm was very distinct and powerful. Roach added simple comps and a hypnotic sound on the ride-cymbal. No solos are played, but the pianist’s style is constantly changing. Max Roach plays very subtly for the majority of the piece. However, he shines at the end with some fills that he performs with remarkable speed. Max Roach’s and Mingus’s playing seems to push Ellington into a position where he dominates their performance.

This was the song that I found most intriguing on the album. In most cases, the drummer serves to keep the beat and complement other musicians. This song is more of a drum-solo, with piano and bass accompaniments. Roach utilizes the toms as well as snares and the rims. Ellington, as well as Mingus, keep the music light behind their drummers and compliment it nicely. Roach is a unique drummer because his style makes it seem as though he never uses cymbals. In his solos, he uses only the hi-hat and the crash or ride a couple of times. It’s admirable how he isn’t afraid to try new rhythms.

This trio is without a doubt among the most legendary jazz musicians of all time. As someone who doesn’t listen much to jazz, it was a new experience to me. Although they all seem to ‘do their own thing”, the trio manages to pull it off. I rate this album as 5/5. The musicians make it look like they are talking with the songs. The songs aren’t sung, but the instruments can be heard talking to one another. Max Roach breaks the rules with his drumming. Even his most simple fills carry a lot of power. This album is highly recommended to jazz lovers because the three musicians have a great ability to push each other until they achieve a raw, driving sound.

Human Impact On Red Panda Populations

Table of Contents


Illegally hunting and killing wild animals.

Accidental Trapping

Red pandas look like raccoons and have fur in shades of orange, brown or black. Central China and the surrounding areas are home to red pandas. They spend their lives living in isolated mountain areas among the trees. In the wild, these species can live for 8-10 years. However, in zoos, where they’re protected from human causes of extinction, they may last up to 15 years. Red panda numbers have declined over the past fifty years because of deforestation. Poaching and accident trapping were also factors.

DeforestationThe red Panda chews bamboo and leaves as it moves around the trees. The claws on the panda help it stay in the forest and the fur on its body helps to camouflage the red moss, lichen trees, and other plants. “The panda is comfortable here. Few places are as safe and remote. As towns grow around the panda forest, more land is cut down to make firewood and for farming. Researchers estimate the animal’s habitat has shrunk by up to 50 percent in the last two decades. Miles Roberts is a wildlife scientist at the National Zoo …” The deforestation of trees to meet human needs has led to the endangerment of red pandas in the United States. The red panda is most at risk from habitat loss. Stop cutting down trees in large quantities. This will not only help red pandas, but also other species. By preserving trees, the environment is unified and unaffected. Plants and animals can also thrive in a variety of tree environments. Deforestation increases the diversity of trees as more trees are removed from an area. Also, organisms which live on trees die off. Reforestation is the only way to solve this issue and create more habitats for animals such as red pandas.

PoachingPoaching is a problem for red pandas. Not only are they threatened by deforestation, but the poaching that occurs leads to many of them being killed. The pelts of red pandas, which can be made into capes or hats for sale in Bhutan and other places where they are found, are harvested. Poaching will eventually lead to a complete extinction of pandas. Some pandas are illegally traded, and some are poached. These practices negatively impact species already on the endangered list. People buy these animals to make products, inadvertently putting the species at risk. This poaching has resulted in a decrease of biodiversity due to the decreasing red panda populations. It is wrong to poach these pandas because they are such a rare species. One way to stop the poaching is by not buying products made with red panda furs or goods derived from their poaching. There are also organizations that have been formed to help preserve these animals, and prevent their poaching. Red Panda Network’s Conservation in Bhutan Project is one example. These organizations can also be supported by donations.

Accidental trapping is another cause of the red panda decline. Red pandas can get caught in traps that are meant for other animals. The traps can be dangerous, and are usually designed for animals like wolves and bears. However, pandas may accidentally fall into them. Red pandas that get trapped in these traps usually suffer serious injuries and die (Cook, 2018). It happens more than most people realize, and this has contributed to the decline of panda populations. This problem also contributes to the decline of biodiversity because any animal caught in a cage trap could be killed. The issue is easily solved by removing the traps that allow small animals to be trapped and killed.

Air Pollution: Causes, Effects, And Solutions

We are a major cause of Earth’s slow death. Our actions are harming the Earth. Air pollution is a major cause of the rapid decline in air quality around the globe. The air pollution is a combination of gases and particles in the atmosphere that are harmful for everyone. Air pollution can be harmful to the planet’s health. It affects both local people and the whole world. Both natural and human-made sources can cause air pollution. Causes include human activities like burning fossil fuels and wood for cooking, heating, lighting, transportation emissions. Air pollution can be caused by volcanic activity, dust, wildfires and animals. This essay analyzes air pollution causes and remedies, while also discussing its effects.

Air pollution has increased rapidly in recent decades, and the main cause is human activity. Air pollution has been caused by humans in many ways. When we use fuels, electricity, transportation, etc., it directly causes air pollution. Directly or indirectly, air pollution is caused when we use transportation, electricity, fuels and gas. Our vehicles and electricity are powered by fossil fuels including coal, oil or natural gas. This can be done by burning fossil and biomass fuels in the home, or burning wood indoors. The coal-burning power stations are one of the biggest contributors. Air pollution is caused by factories, industrial processes and chemicals that are released from these buildings. Air pollution is also caused by transportation. The air pollution caused by vehicle emissions is a major factor. A major contributor to poor air quality is the waste, and burning wastes in landfills. It releases harmful chemicals such as dioxins and furans into the air.

Some air pollution is poisonous. Inhaling these pollutants can lead to future health problems. Air pollution is more dangerous for people with lung or heart disease, children and older adults. Air pollution can affect your health not only outside, but also inside. Both indoors and outdoors can have an impact. Air pollution affects everyone. Everywhere. It is not only a local problem. Climate change and pollution are also related. Everyone is affected in one way or another. The air pollution we breathe affects all of life on Earth. The environment, plants, wildlife, and animals are all negatively affected. In the air are toxic chemicals that can contaminate water, contaminate plants, and poison animals. The cycle is vicious and affects all members of the food supply. It’s a global issue that affects everyone on earth, including the planet.

These actions are not meant to cause harm to Earth or pollution, but to create and advance. Air pollution was not something that we intended to create, but rather an inevitable result of all the other things we did. These things were done by humans to progress in technology and civilization. Air pollution has increased due to the industrial revolution and new technologies. The number of new industries is increasing, as are the factories, power stations, and materials burned to produce. In industrial processes, pollutants like nitrous dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons are released into the atmosphere. Fossil fuels can also cause air pollution from factories, as they produce high levels. The transportation sector is another source of pollution. But, it is also essential for the growth of population. The population will increase as the world grows, and with it, so will the number of humans.

Positive and negative effects of air pollution are both possible. It is not all negative. In the past few years, we have seen a significant increase in technology, industry, and improvements to processes. All of this has a positive outcome, as the society becomes more advanced with more research and breakthroughs. The industries have grown, production is up, and we are experiencing more growth. We’ve improved and are now using higher-tech products such as automobiles, small appliances, energy sources, and other items. Even though pollution is a downside to all of this progress, it still has benefits. There are both positive and negative aspects to it. The trade-off between positive and negative outcomes is fair.

Reduce your energy consumption and switch to renewable energies. Air pollution can be reduced by doing small things. We need more awareness of our actions to try and reduce toxins and chemicals produced. You can conserve energy by using energy-efficient products, carpooling with others, taking public transportation, walking/biking and avoiding excess consumption. Be more conscious and aware of what you do. People are also trying to solve the problem in a number of ways, including by introducing cleaner fuels and policies that encourage energy efficiency. There are policies in place that mandate the use cleaner fuels. Improvements to the collection of solid and liquid wastes, their separation, and their disposal can also reduce the amount wasted. We can also separate organic waste, and convert it into bioenergy or compost. This issue can be reduced with even the smallest of efforts. The people do not think they can play a part in improving this problem and situation. But they’re wrong. Everyone can play a part in reducing pollution. It is possible to make small changes that can help a lot, like using less electricity, carpooling, avoiding the use of excessive appliances, and avoiding machines which release chemicals or toxins. The world can benefit if we all do our part.

The planet has billions upon billions. A single person’s action can set off a cascade of events. If everyone does this, we will see a brighter future for the Earth, with less pollution and damage. It is possible for one person to have a small impact on millions of other people, which can have a large effect. It is my responsibility to reduce waste and to do what I can.

How Offshore Drilling Affects The Environment

Environmental impacts outweigh economic benefits in offshore oil drilling. The offshore oil drilling activity has continued for more than 10 years. However, it is difficult to understand why this practice continues. This problem is not without solutions. It is necessary to first discuss the problems before presenting solutions.

Offshore drilling is a major source of pollution, both on land and at sea. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “offshore drilling results in substantial pollution, both oil and gas, from derricks and oil rigs.” Our oceans are in danger until we do something about pollution. How much oil does the world put into its oceans? According to World Research Institute research, “between 3 million and 6,000,000 tons of petroleum are discharged every year into oceans”(Gorman 48). It is roughly equivalent to 4 football-sized stadiums full of oil. It’s been like this for over a ten-year period. In the last decade, 45,000,000 tons of crude oil were dumped into oceans. The oil that ends up in oceans can be a result of several factors. The oil can be deposited in the oceans by drilling accidents or spillages from tankers. The American Oceans Campaign reports that in 1990, “1/8 of all the oil discharged daily occurred in New York-New Jersey Harbor”. Only an eighth is spilled. Think about it for a second. An eighth out of 6 million tonnes is 750,000 metric tons of oil. Large concentrations of crude oil are often devastating to marine life. They can even cause species to become extinct. Christos Paoutsis said that the disposal of oil at sea is neither a feasible nor a desirable solution (Cutter). He is absolutely right. The impact of the current oil spills in the ocean is severe, both on marine life and surrounding environments. Companies that dump crude oil in the oceans are simply not able to anticipate the long-term effects of such actions. The pollution caused by offshore drilling is not limited to marine pollution. Air pollution is also created by offshore drilling in addition to marine pollution. Often when oil companies “come across packages of natural gases which escape into air” (Sisskin), they are “drilled for”. Oil companies have the ability to seize natural gases when they are found, but instead choose not too. Natural gas is then released into the air, where it can cause damage in terms of global warming and also by mixing with other toxins to create poisonous gases. Oil drilling offshore is responsible for more than just pollution.

Offshore drilling has a negative impact on marine life. It also reduces natural resources. Offshore oil drilling will remove the natural resources for which “the world’s eyes will be on the oceans” in the 21stcentury (Environmental News Network). Our marine resources have already been overstressed. In just a few years, we will feel the full impact of ocean depletion. The economies of those countries who rely heavily on oceans will soon collapse. The strain placed on oceans affects the animals that live in the area. One of the leaders in the oil industry, Shell, “has not improved on it’s environmentalperformance in the Niger Delta” (Rowell 101). Over 3 million marine creatures died and the marine life in a quarter-mile area around the oilrig decreased. Imagine a similar impact for all oil platforms, and you can see why marine life has suffered a serious decline. Offshore disasters are not limited to the sea. Oil tanks that are used to transport oil to shore and then store it can be dangerous for the environment. It is estimated that “one quarter of underground fuel stations in the U.S. leaks” (Rowell 100). Leaks from underground reached the waterways and killed both land-based life and marine life. The impact of these leaks on drinking water will be evident when the waterways are reached. Can offshore drilling still be environmentally safe with such pollution? These results were based on a simple leak underground. Oil spills have far more impact on marine wildlife. Only 2,400 California Otters remained after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. This is a small number when compared with the “nearly two times that number” (AOC) who were killed in the Alaska oil spill. This is about two-thirds of the California Otter population that was lost in a single spill. The California otter is in danger of extinction if oil spills continue at the same rate. It is just one of many species threatened with extinction by offshore oil drilling. Is offshore drilling still worth the maintenance and repairs of offshore rigs, given all these problems? It is clear that the answer to this question is no.

Offshore oil drilling isn’t economically viable. It is the main reason offshore drilling isn’t feasible. “One hundred million barrels (of oil) in a very small area is what makes it viable.” A small area is defined as an area of fifty yards or less. This is extremely rare. The failure to achieve this results in the company losing money, and they will do anything to get it back. To regain profits, it is obvious to build new rigs. The cycle is repeated when the rigs fail to generate a profit. The companies don’t just pay for rigs that aren’t profitable. Fines are imposed on companies that do not follow environmental regulations. Average fines paid by companies are over 8.3 millions dollars. Unfortunately, for most companies, it is not much money. The fines may be high, but they never stop companies from drilling. The Wilderness Society states that the fines for spills were insignificant. The Department of Justice only collected 30 million for all environmental offenses in 1990. It is not cost-effective to develop safety measures for oil rigs, if the costs of dealing with spills are so low. This trend, which is irreversible, will continue until solutions can be found. This will lead to environmental damage that may not be reversible. Offshore drilling companies are often materialistic in their approach, asking only “can we do this” after first asking “how much is it going to cost?” (Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy). Shell is a good example of a large company that has adopted this attitude. Shell knows they can make money from land-based sources, even if there are losses in offshore drilling. They fail to maintain the rigs and cause environmental disasters. It is only in rare situations that offshore drilling can be profitable.

The offshore drilling problem is not insurmountable. In terms of the cost required to implement most solutions, they are trivial (AEPS). Companies won’t change their practices offshore drilling until they understand this. Many companies are aware that they need to find solutions, but instead of doing so, they simply scrap the rig after it has served its purpose. Many companies do not realize that many solutions are less expensive than the maintenance costs of their rigs. Shell’s External Relationship Manager, Onishi, said “whatever you throw in will still be a small drop in the sea”. Shell is unable to make necessary changes to its rigs for them to be environmentally safe due to this attitude. Shell is fined over 3.2 million dollars a year. However, the cost of bringing all their rigs into compliance with standards would only be 1.4 billion. Why haven’t these companies taken this step? They don’t seem to care. What is required to stop this environmental catastrophe? To begin with, a stricter set of laws will go a long way to reducing the environmental impact of offshore drilling. Tax-deductible civil suits are filed for most oil spills like the Exxon Valdez. The company responsible for the oil spill is then charged with civil liability and receives a tax rebate. It was obvious that this is not how fines should work. There will be safety code violations until companies are required to follow a set of mandatory bylaws. Simply restarting oilrigs, which are no longer in use, will “increase supply of energy and reduce environmental hazards without cost to taxpayers.” (California Environmental Resources Evaluation System). This is far superior to building new rigs. The oil companies are the ones who will make the final decisions on how to deal with oil rigs since these solutions cost nothing.

In light of the environmental damage that is caused by offshore drilling, this option is not economically viable. Oil companies do not care about the environmental impact of offshore drilling, including the pollution in the air and on the ocean, or the loss of profits. Will the companies’ current policies change in regards to these issues? No. Not until legislation is passed to force companies into making the necessary changes.

The Importance Of Taking Care Of God’s Creation

It is difficult to take care of the creation of god. This essay discusses how our “I want what’s best” mentality completely contradicts this. Genesis 1:1-2,15. We’re bombarded daily with advertisements and messages telling us how we can make life easier. And yet our own selfishness is telling us: “No one else does it” and that “my contribution will not make any difference.” This passage shows Him creating intentionally and in order. He fills up what He created in the following 3 days. As we watch the Lord creating each one “according their kind,” He declares its goodness with every step.

All that God created is beautiful. He knew that his creations would thrive, and he created them knowing this. God’s never-ending wisdom confirms the existence of his creation. God uses his creation to reveal himself and his wonderful qualities. Since creation, God has made his invisible attributes, like his eternal nature and power, visible. This is why men are free from excuses.

Each day, millions of tonnes of garbage are generated by humans. Many of these litters end up in landfills. However, some are dumped illegally or accidentally into the ocean. Researchers have developed a new data base that shows how common ocean litter can be, from the infamous North Pacific garbage patches to the trash found in deep oceans and on beaches worldwide. Some of the worst polluted places, where there are more than 10 million pieces of litter in a square kilometer of ocean, include beaches, patches of sea, and areas of land off of South Korea’s coast and Jordan. Plastics make up the majority of this little bit, about 70%. Metal and glass are also a part of it. Particularly prevalent are microplastics. These are tiny shards that measure less than 5mm. It’s due to the large pieces breaking down in sunlight or ocean currents. Our litter makes life in the ocean difficult.

This database also shows that over 1200 aquatic mammals, fish, and other species come into contact with litter, either by eating, living, or becoming entangled. Carbon dioxide, the most dangerous gas for climate change, is released when oil and coal are burned to produce energy. It’s produced when fossil fuels like oil, coke, and coal are burned to produce energy. This energy is used in our homes, cars, smartphones, etc. We can also save money if we use less. We can reduce carbon emissions by saving water. Because it takes energy to heat, pump, and treat water. You can reduce the length of your showers by turning off the tap when you are brushing teeth.

Problem Of The Air Pollution

Vietnam, in particular, has seen an increase in air pollution over the last few decades. According to the World Health Organization, air pollution is carcinogenic for humans and contains cancer-causing chemicals. Air pollution is a serious problem in Vietnam and globally. Vietnamese air pollution is ranked among the worst in the world.

The air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City is alarming. Ho Quoc Bang was the warning’s author. He is the head the Institute for Environment and Natural Resources, Vietnam National University. Air pollution is caused by construction, traffic and industrial activity. Nearly 85 percent of all carbon monoxide and other harmful substances are released by traffic activities. Construction sites have higher air pollution than standard. Air pollution is also worsened by these activities. The health of the people is already affected. Around 1.5 million Vietnamese suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease each year due to pollution. In 2013, it caused the deaths of 40,000 people including 3,000 Ho Chi Minh City residents (Dr. Le Viet Phu). Air pollution is four times as deadly as traffic accidents. Dr. Nguyenthanh Vu warned Vietnamese officials of recent air pollution effects on children. He says “the World Health Organization Statistic that two-million children die from acute respiratory illnesses worldwide each year and that 60% of those deaths are caused due to air pollution”. These situations also affect the economy of the country. Dr. Phu calculated that air pollutants cause damages of up to US$10 Billion. This number includes lost productivity, life value and willingness to spend money for air pollution reduction.

The problem has been addressed in many ways. Bang, an environmental institute employee, stated that “Saigon must control motorbike emissions, upgrade older buses to cleaner models, cap the emission levels for factories, and ban construction in certain areas”. Dr. Phu also echoes the call for stricter and more rigorous standards. He also calls for an early-warning system that will alert residents to dangerous weather conditions. In districts where pollution is above the allowed levels, government agencies will stop factories and limit travel. Vietnam’s present air quality standards have a gap between 2.5-5x compared to WHO standards.

While factories are being controlled by “emissions quotas”, this can be done in a quarter or calendar. Bang said “it is important to take measures to gradually reduce fossil fuel vehicles, and to encourage public transportation, biofuel vehicles and solar power”. Hong, who works for an organization that promotes health and the environment, thinks Vietnam should improve its air quality to match global environmental indexes.

The Reasons Why The Koala Species Is Endangered

The 2019/2020 Australian Bushfires caused 10 million hectares to burn, which affected 1,25 billion wildlife. Koalas in Australia and around the world are at risk of extinction. The Koala has seen a decline in population since European settlement began in Australia. The decline of the Koala population is partly due to the introduction of new threats that the population was not anatomically equipped to handle.

Koalas rely on climbing to move from one branch to another. Comparing Koalas to their closest terrestrial relatives, the Wombats, will help describe the Koalas’ functional anatomy in relation to climbing. Koalas share many characteristics with Wombats. These include a similar dentition pattern, a posteriorly oriented marsupium, and a vestige tail. Koalas use their sedentary climbing and feeding position to develop palms with medial facings to allow them grip trees. Wombats on the other hand have palms with plantigrades to provide stability and even pressure distribution. Koalas are able to supinate their forelimbs more easily thanks to the bowed radius. Wombats, on the other hand, have a radius that is compact and restricts them from doing so (Fig.2) This skeletal configuration is good for climbing. However, it can make it difficult for Koalas to move from one habitat to another in search of food or mates. Koalas share the same elongated forelimbs as Wombats. Arboreal species are known to have increased stride-lengths, which may reduce peak forces during the traverse of narrow branches. The slenderness of the humerus prevents an excessive amount of terrestrial locomotion. A lack of a significant olecranon is also responsible for reducing stability at the elbow when it comes to weight bearing. Koalas have opposable halluxes on both feet and hands to provide them with extra grip strength. All of their digits feature large, curled claws, which allow them to grip on bark and hold onto a branch (Young 1882) or secure their position. But they also make it difficult to move on land, because the claws force the limbs to be stretched out, and the hands and foot to be splayed. This leads to a significant amount of lateral movement when the limbs swung. This claw reduces the speed of locomotion on land as it increases the stance phase because the digits are more dependent on the precise placement for the application of pressure (Gaschk Frere Clemente, 2019,). In the same way as the forelimbs, the hindlimb’s musculature has been adapted to invert it. In addition, there is no soleus or iliac attachment in the gluteus extensus. There is also only a single origin to the biceps and gracilis. This muscular arrangement also results in reduced hip mobility, which is a major factor in the biomechanical inefficiency in terrestrial movement. (Grand & Barboza 2001). Koalas have a low speed on the land, and they do not travel in packs. They are therefore more susceptible to road fatalities and predator attacks. Recent climate change and human settlement have led to an increase in fragmentation of the Eucalyptus forest (Narayan & Williams, 2016). Koalas spend a long time traveling over land in search of food, water or mates. Koalas don’t have many predators so they aren’t able to protect themselves. Koalas can’t thrive in the peri-urban area because of the intense human activity. The Koala’s diet has also influenced their adaptations, which are a major factor in their disadvantage. Koalas are one of few species capable of digesting and absorbing the energy and nutrients from the Eucalyptus tree leaf. Koalas have a caecum that is enormous in comparison to their body size. Koalas have been referred to as some of the most specialized folivores in mammals (Shipley Forbey Moore, 2009). The Eucalyptus is the main part of their diet, accounting for over 93% (Grand, Barboza and Moore, 2001). Koalas might have adapted by eating Eucalyptus as the leaves are toxic to most other animals (Moore and Foley 2000). Koalas’ Eucalyptus leaf diet is notoriously low-energy and hard to digest. Koalas are known to require 19-22 hrs/day for eating and sleeping in order to satisfy their basal energy needs. As they are unable spare energy to socialise or move around excessively, the Koala leads a sedentary existence. Koalas are unable to spare the energy for excessive movement or socialising, so their basal metabolic rate is lower than average (Grand & Barboza, 2001). In order to conserve energy, they have adopted a number of metabolic conservationist strategies. Koalas use a thick, insulating pelt to keep warm, despite the high winds in the treetops. Koalas try to stay cool by pressing their thin skin against the cool ground and bark. These methods may reduce the energy required to maintain a body temperature, but their insulating fur led to the species’ exploitation by the pelt-trade in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This resulted millions of deaths. As climate change intensifies, leading to more extreme weather, and as their habitat fragments, it’s unlikely that these species can maintain a healthy temperature with just these methods. Koalas may die from overheating or dehydration due to a lack of water and the increasingly rare shade. Koalas get 91% of energy from Eucalyptus from digesting its contents and not the cell wall. Koalas grind their jaws to reduce cell walls. This increases the surface of the mouth, which will promote fermentation. The dentition has been adapted by the species to maximize the amount of cell content exposed (Lanyon & Sanson, 1986). Koalas grind leaves with their mandibulars in a lateral motion before swallowing. Their large mouths allow them to chew more food. A decreasing brain size is evident in fossils as mastication was given more importance, resulting in larger masticatory musculature and their attachment site (Grands and Barbozas, 2001; Louyset al. (2009)). Grand and Barboza described a Koala’s skull in 2001 as “a chewing-machine housing a small mind”. Smith (1979), who hypothesized koalas may lack social skills and adaptability because of their smaller brains compared to their body sizes, suggested that this could be the case. Smith argued that as they were not opportunistic creatures, such as primates and carnivores like humans, they could simply evaluate whether what was in front them was palatable by looking at it, its smell or moisture content without needing to assess their surroundings. Moore and Foley, (2000) as well as Ellis (2010) confirm these findings. (2010). Koalas can be limited by their inability to process different environments due to the small size of their heads. They may also reject good food because they are not able to differentiate between species. It is partly due to plant secondary metabolites that the Eucalyptus tree is toxic. Koalas have a higher detoxification ability, so they can digest the plant. But this doesn’t mean the PSMs don’t have any impact on Koalas. Their uncontested food access comes with a price. PSMs still reach high levels in the bloodstream and have been proven to be immunomodulatory in many animals, including Koalas. PSMs are known to reduce expression of important signaling glycoproteins used by immune cells. This results in a decrease or complete negation of the effectiveness for certain immune responses pathways. Suppression of immune pathways, however, may have made it easier to adapt to low-energy foods by reducing some energy-demanding immune reactions. This may have worked in the past relative to the benefits that came with an uncontested source of food, but it’s possible this trade-off no longer works in their favor. Habitat degradation reduces dietary diversity, which is crucial in regulating PSM concentrations. New diseases that are associated with new species or habitats also pose a massive threat to the population. Chlamydia infection is one of the biggest threats to Koalas. It was introduced by sheep, cattle and early humans. Of the two chlamydial strains seen in Koalas, Chlamydia pecorum (C.pecorum) is the most prevalent and pathogenic, and infection can result in severe symptoms such as blindness (caused by keratoconjunctivitis), urinary incontinence, cystitis, infertility, reproductive tract lesions, bursitis, pneumonia and, in severe cases, death (Gonzalez-Astudillo et al., 2019). As many as 88% Koalas infected are either infected or infected both with these chlamydials. The infertility that C.pecorum can cause is well documented (Robbins,,2018). It is difficult to manage infection in populations when 66% of male carriers are asymptomatic (Hulse, 2020). Due to their increased detoxification capabilities, Koalas need a longer treatment cycle of 35-40 days to treat diseases like chlamydials. Kollipara et al. (2012). It is stated that the only solution to eradicate or control the disease among the Koalas population would be to create a vaccination with the fewest booster immunisations possible. But the cost and trauma of capturing, restraining and treating these animals means that this solution will be a while off. Narayan, Williams and Hulse (2016) suggested that Koalas suffer from immunosuppression due to the stress they experience when humans invade their area. (2020) found that the areas with the highest C.pecorum prevalence were peri-urban, an area known to be stressful for wildlife. Stress can cause a decrease in reproduction, development and feeding. This in turn leads to increased mortality. Inbreeding rates are also higher among Koalas, especially in South Australia, where islands have been formed from just two or three individuals. Low genetic variations can lead to morphological disorders, decreased reproduction success, and even inbreeding. As a result, populations with high levels of inbreeding will be less able to survive harsh environmental conditions. Koalas have been adapted well in one environment. But, because of human interference, their adaptations to this particular environment are changing. They now face significant disadvantages. Koalas are facing unprecedented threats. Their deaths could be caused by disease, bushfires and introduced predators. It may also result from an inability of the Koala to survive in harsh climates. Koalas are not able to adapt as quickly to changes in their environment because they lack phenotypic flexibility.

Sharks Demand Protection Just Like Endangered Species

Marine biologists study and protect the oceans and the animals that live in them. Marine biologists are not only concerned about the ocean but also with land-based issues. They fight to pass regional laws that ban fishing and protect endangered species using methods such as captive breeding. Sharks, also known as elasmobranchii, are a species that’s getting close to being endangered. Scientists are not concerned about sharks because there are over 506 species. Sharks are brutally slaughtered in large numbers, and their fins are removed for traditional medicine or shark fin soup. Some people believe that this practice is acceptable because it is so important in many Asian countries. Shark finning, despite its cultural significance, is harmful to the ocean ecosystem, sharks, and those who use them. Shark deaths are considered trivial by some individuals and fishermen. Why should we be saddened by the death of a terrifying, bloodthirsty apex-predator? Sharks are not evil. They simply lack the intelligence or capacity to have morality.

Media such as books, movies, and TV shows have made people believe that sharks are vengeful and will hunt humans down at any opportunity. Many people instantly think of the 1975 movie “Jaws”, when discussing sharks. In the film, a shark is shown preying on people in a small town. The sharks of “Finding Nemo” are also shown to be driven to bloodlust by a small amount red liquid. Even documentaries which are based on fact can influence how we view the species. The reason could be something as simple or as complex as the lighting and music. A scene accompanied by ominous background music is perceived as scary and fear-inducing. This technique is used in horror films. When viewers hear sinister music in the background, they will begin to subconsciously link sharks and fear. Many shark hunters aren’t motivated by fear. According to a research article published by “Frontiers In Marine Science”, the shark fin industry has been so lucrative, it’s transformed remote coastal communities of Eastern Indonesia, which were primarily subsistence fishing villages, into cash-based economies. The shark fishing industry is now less dependent on subsistence fisheries. There are few other marine-based businesses that can offer the same financial reward. This practice can be attractive to fishermen with low incomes who are trying to get by. The money they earn can help them escape poverty, allow their children go to school, or provide medical care. Shark finning is an evil that must be done. To improve their lives, they need to find alternatives that are both financially viable and sustainable. The Chinese use shark fins for various unproven treatments. In the past, shark fins were used to make expensive soups that were considered status symbols. Shark fins tend to have a bland flavor, so soups with them are heavily seasoned or mixed with chicken stock. Cooking time is required to soften the gummy, hard fins. Fins are also advertised as a cancer cure, skin care, joint pain relief, and aphrodisiac. In 2012, marine biologists and neuroscientists discovered that shark fins contained high levels of the neurotoxin BMAA. The toxin and the mercury in shark meat can increase your risk of developing brain degenerative diseases.

Shark fins are not good for you, but they hurt the sharks more. The sharks are captured, brought aboard, and their dorsal as well as pectoral fins are slashed. As the sharks are still alive, they are thrown into the water as soon the definning is complete. Fins are much more lucrative and easier to obtain than the shark’s entire body. The majority of shark species are able to breathe by ram-ventilation. This means they have to be in constant motion so that water can flow through and over their gills. The shark is unable move without its fins and cannot get oxygen or breathe. In an attempt to survive, they wiggle and struggle, but eventually sink. The shark is not the only one affected by their death. As apex prey, their presence is vital to the ecosystem’s balance. Without sharks, prey populations would explode and natural resources would be depleted. In the opposite direction, predators like sharks will also overpopulate. Sharks are the only predators that can compete with them.

The ocean will no longer be able sustain its creatures and the ecosystem will be completely thrown out of balance. Scientists have begun implementing technology in order to protect and conserve the sharks. Simon Thorrold uses PSAT tag to track some sharks. PSAT tags, a small device attached to the dorsal side of a shark’s fin, are painless. The tags allow us to see how animals live in their ocean habitats, including where they travel, when and why. The tag can stay in a shark’s body for up to a full year before it detaches itself and floats on the surface. The tag then transmits its signals to satellites nearby, where scientists can review and retrieve the data. Scientists can use tags such as these to determine which areas are off-limits for fishermen searching for sharks. We don’t want to eat shark fins or use unscientific remedies based solely on folklore and speculation.

Shark finning, while a brutal and inhumane practice, may benefit struggling fisherman for a time, but it will eventually cause more issues than we can fix or avoid. Marine biologists can make greater strides in conserving sharks with the help of advanced technology and increased awareness. They won’t have to battle against people who are culturally biased or have a tradition-bound mindset. These animals are still being exploited ruthlessly. Our oceans need sharks for survival, even if humans don’t.

Types And Components Of The Polymer Composites And Effects Of Fillers/reinforcements

Polymer composites

Modification of organic materials adds additives. There are a few notable exceptions. Combination that is caused by a micro-structure unique to the product or unique microstructure. Additives are used primarily for:

Improving and controlling of processing characteristics.Property modification or enhancement.

Cost reductions across the board

Types and components of polymer composites

Polymer composites are a mix of polymer and organic or inorganic additives with geometrical certainty (flakes spheres fibers and particles). They are composed of more than two phases or components. The polymer is incorporated in a geometric pattern that covers the entire product. Laminate Thermoset – a common example based upon a fiber – is usually classified as high-performance polymer or large compound due to its length. The additive can also be discontinuous. For example, it could consist of short fibres. In these regions, the platelets are of the same nanoscale as the dispersed fibers. This is what we call nanocomposite. Because they contain multiple interfaces, they differ from microcomposites. Nanocomposites are unique in their properties and have great potential to be used for advanced applications. Composites are also classified by the nature (natural versus synthesized) of their matrix or filler. These are highly complicated structures that consist of fibers or particles, either continuous or not, embedded on a matrix. The fibre cellulose, lignin and other components are included. Bone is made of proteins, collagen and calcium-phosphate. Spider silk contains organic Nano-crystals within an organic matrix. Molluscs have shells made up of mineral layers of hardness, separated by protein binders. A micro-composite with mica flakes and thermoset polymeric matrix contains a similar platey structure providing a tortuous way for liquids, vapours, and gases.

Composites are classified according to their intended use or application. Someone can differentiate between two types bio-composites. Ecological bio-composites are made from a mixture of natural fibres, particulates and polymers from renewable or non-renewable materials. They are distinguished by their environmental degradation. Bio-composites are a combination of biostable, biodegradable, and inert polymers, with bioactive and inert fillers, that are used in biomedical applications such as orthopaedics or bone regeneration. Reinforcements with a stiffer, stronger polymer are used to increase the strength and modulus. The mechanical properties can have an impact on thermal expansion, stability and transparency.

When prepared in specific geometric patterns, continuous composites can be made up of long fibers and ribbons. Dis-continuous Composites consist of directional reinforcing materials such as short fibers or flakes that are arranged according to a geometric pattern and direction determined by selected molding and processing methods. There are however, manufacturing methods which can produce continuous oriented-fibre thermoplastic composites with very high fiber contents. These materials are often used for high-performance engineering Polymers.

Effects of Fillers/Reinforcements: Functions

In the past, fillers have only slightly increased the modulus of polymers due to their geometrical characteristics, surface area or chemical composition on the surface. The strength (tension and bending) has not changed. The main benefit of fillers was that they reduced the price of materials, by substituting the most expensive ones. The increased thermal conductivity could also lead to a faster molding cycle, and fewer rejected parts because of warpage. Inorganic fillers have a tendency to reduce the shrinkage or thermal expansion in moulds. The term reinforcing-filler was coined to describe additives which have undergone a change in surface chemistry, or their shape to enhance the mechanical properties of polymers. The inorganic Reinforcing Filler is rigider than the matrix. It is also less deformed. As a result, the matrix will deform, and the overall particle size will decrease near the interface. The fibre pinches and stiffens the polymer around it.

Aspect ratios of high reinforcement fillers can be defined as the ratios of length to diameter or thickness. The modifications not only enhance the filler’s main function (in this instance, it is used as a measure of mechanical properties), but can also add or increase additional features. Fillers can be modified or replaced to achieve new functions, which will expand their application. After the commercialization, talc and asbestos fibres formed the first group. They were chosen for their advantages in heat resistance and stiffness. Second-generation excipients were created as a replacement for asbestos because of its health risks. It was discovered that mica was an effective talc additive to increase heat resistance and hardness, whereas calcium carbonate had a lesser effect in hardening PP-like polymers. It was discovered that by modifying the surface of mica with bonding compounds to improve adhesion as well as the modification to the calcium carbonate-stearate dispersion to enhance these functions.

Functional Fillers, classification & Types

Filler can refer to a wide variety of materials. Fillers are solid particles (inorganic or organic) that can be fibrous, juicier or irregular. They are commonly used as bulk loaders in plastics. Fillers come in a wide range of chemical compositions, shapes, sizes, and properties. In general, fillers are highly rigid materials. They can be used in either a liquid or a solid state. As fillers, inorganic and organic materials are classified by their chemical families or by their size and shape. Particulate fillers like mica, calcium-carbonate, Kaolin, Talc, Feldspar and Aluminium Hydroxide are widely used. Fiber fillers include glass fibres and natural fibers. Carbon black is a filler that has been used for years. These products include montmorillonite such as hydrotalcite and montmorillonite as well as various oxides, nanofibers like single-walled or multi-walled nanotubes, and various oxides. Halloysite and graphene nanotubes can be used as additives in advanced nanocomposites. The first is made from a honeycomb-like structure of tightly packed carbon atoms, while the second is created by the surface weathering of minerals containing aluminosilicate. Natural nanotubes. Fillers can have multiple functions and are classified according to their primary function, as well as by the multitude of secondary functions.

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