The earth was once a beautiful, lush place with unkindled species and vibrant vegetation. But, humans have made the planet a parasite, further threatening its ability to sustain itself generation after generation. Even though we all want to help, the ocean has been affected by our actions to improve it. The atmosphere is being disrupted by the use of fossil fuels for power. Ultra violet rays can be used to destroy coral reefs. Invasive species can travel by our means, which allows them to get around to other places. Omega 3 and other nutrients are also being used to feed ourselves. Ocean life has been controversial for a long time. However, over fishing and climate change are making it more difficult for marine animals to survive. Climate change is the most convincing evidence. It is caused and is known to have been occurring for around 218 years (Weart 2018, 2018). Yet, American politics continues to ignore it because it is considered irrelevant. It is irrelevant in California, which is raging. Is it relevant when the ocean is filled with the bodies of endangered species and fish? This was the beginning of the industrial revolution. The production of greenhouse gas increased dramatically with the introduction of railroads and coal (Weart 2018). The greenhouse effect became apparent due to polluted atmospheric air. Scientists realized that the greenhouse effect was being caused by increasing levels of carbon dioxide. (Shaftel 2018.) The second industrial revolution was achieved in 1870. This revolution brought us fertilization, chemicals, as well as electricity. (Weart 2018, 2018) Humans were able to harness this technology and control it. Because fossil fuels were becoming more scarce, wars were fought. This was how scientists predicted the catastrophic future events. It involved the decreasing Arctic ice-sheets and dangers to the ozone. The marine life is suffering from the harsh effects of UV rays. The sun’s UV rays can cause changes in marine life. This is evident in phytoplankton which is so sensitive to UV. Their biochemical cycle for taking in carbon dioxide will affect their activities (Przyborski, 2001). Photosynthesis in Antarctica has been affected by the loss of phytoplankton. Because organisms have to adjust to this new environment, some areas of the ecosystem have been affected by the disruption. Corals and other marine organisms live in shallower waters. They are exposed to harsher sunlight and suffer bleaching, which results in death. Extremely high temperatures are responsible for bleaching. Corals become stressed when they are exposed to high temperatures. They then eject single-celled algae from their corals, causing them to lose color as well as food source (Earth Journalism Network 2016). Australia. The ocean’s warming is threatening the Great Barrier Reef. As long as fossil fuels are used, coral cannot recover. The pollution and green gasses are causing heat stress to coral (Winton 2018, Winton). The ocean absorbs greenhouse gases, which means that there isn’t enough phytoplankton for photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide that isn’t filtered increases the potential hydrogen in water. The ocean has absorbed about 525 billion tonnes of CO2, or 22 million tons per hour since the industrial era. Too much acidification can cause damage to the shells of many organisms. The water’s acidity can cause shells to soften and become deformed. Without this adaptation, sea creatures are rapidly dying. Shelled creatures must develop by the collection of carbonate for their hydrogenions. The acidification makes it harder to do this. They will need to use more energy to produce than they can reproduce.

(Bennet (2018). Acidification has led to many species becoming extinct. They are no longer able to adapt to their environment. In an unfavorable environment, organisms can’t reproduce. Algae have been able to reproduce in these conditions because of the warming ocean water. This can be dangerous for many sea creatures. Algal blooms block sunlight from reaching seafloor plants and have a toxic effect on sea life. A bloom of algal cells can damage the plant life in areas where they are present (EPA 2017, 2017). The algal blooms can cause aquatic life habitats to be altered, which could lead to a decrease in the number of organisms living there. They cannot thrive or repopulate in the area without oxygen. They block out sunlight and make it difficult for plants to thrive. Algal blooms are also dangerous and can cause havoc in coastal waters. Red tide, a recent disaster, is an example. Red tide is an event that occurs right now on the Gulf of Mexico and Florida coasts. Karenia Brevis, an algal bloom that can cause severe health problems, is responsible. Karenia Brevis is the dominant algal bloom in the Gulf of Mexico. It releases a toxin called Brevetoxins which can cause irritation of the respiratory system (Sweat 2011, 2011). This bloom has caused problems for fish as well as marine mammals like manatees. These animals are Becerra 3 at risk of extinction, yet the use of greenhouse gasses and pollution could lead to their disappearance sooner than expected. Red tide blooms are unique to other blooms in the past. Therefore, it is not known when they will cease. Meanwhile, sea animals continue to die at an alarming rate (NOAA 2018, 2018). Native species suffer from invasive species. They thrive and cause further harm to the ecosystem, resulting in a loss of balance. It is quite simple. Humans. Humans were the first to build ships. Today’s ships and boats have a variety of hiding places. Intruders can hide under the boat or in ship hulls. Aquariums can allow for the introduction of some invasive species. Invasive species pose a threat to native species as they can become a competition and deplete resources. They can cause ecosystem disruptions and decrease the number of native fish. There are many types of invasive species. They may be starfish, plants, or shellfish. Without regulation, however, native marine species could face extinction. Invasive species can pose a risk to an environment and take up too much space. The lionfish, green crab and other invasive species are two examples. The Indo-pacific native lion fish, however, have made their ways into the Atlantic oceans. However, humans are the true culprit. They may have been released due to aquarium problems (NOAA 2018, 2018). They cause problems in the Atlantic because they are not predatory and they also steal resources from commercial fish (NOAA-2018). Due to their large numbers, they can cause problems for other species in terms of reproduction. Lionfish are carnivores and eat juveniles to reduce the reef population by 90% (Ocean Support 2013, 2013). They can also reproduce at a much faster rate than native species, which is a major advantage. Lionfish are able to eat more and use more resources because of their hunger. According to Ocean Support (2013), lionfish have a greater impact on coral reefs than they can stomach. Coral health suffers when there is no food source for herbivores. This European green crab doesn’t just look innocent. They also have a hungry appetite and are a problem for fisheries. While they are native to Europe and have made their way to Asia, North/South America, Australia, and elsewhere, the European green crab is not an endangered species. (Tennessen 2011)

They traveled by ballast water taken from ships thousands of miles away.

(Tennessen, 2011) The Green crab is a threat for shorelines, resources and Becerra 4. Green crabs are quick adapters and can eat more food in new environments. (Conservation 2018.) The green crab is a predatory species that eats mostly shellfish. This crab adapts quicker than the native species and pushes out other species with its aggression. Green crabs pose a significant ecological threat to many of the native species. They have been decimating habitat for young species. (Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2013, 2013) The decrease in juveniles means that they cannot increase the number native species. The ecosystem is disrupted when they take over habitats, thereby reducing the native species. The crab’s digging to capture its prey causes the destruction in eelgrass. According to Fisheries and Oceans Canada (2013), … Last but not less, we need to discuss the impact of overfishing on the oceans. Overfishing is the act of taking out large quantities marine life to make it possible for species to repopulate. Overfishing can cause a great deal of problems for repopulation and even eventual extinction. This is a problem that affects more than just fish. The product can become stuck in the net, causing complications that can lead to species not being able to eat it. Because larger animals are more likely to get trapped in nets, they may be more stressed than those used to catch the production fish. The imbalanced ecosystem results in a loss of predators, as well as a decrease in the number of fish that are being taken. It is becoming a problem that these fish are being handled in a reckless and ignorant manner. While there are safer methods of obtaining the resources you need, they are often ignored. The large number of resources that are being cultivated from them puts the Atlantic bluefish and other species in grave danger. The high quality meat from Atlantic bluefish tuna has led to a significant decline in their population. This fish weighs in at 500 pounds and is very popular with Japanese industries (Evan 2014). Because Japan is a major consumer of fish, it can increase sales. However, this can lead to an increase in demand for these fish. This leads to overfishing. In an effort to meet the demand and supply, tunas are being taken by industries. Tunas are finding it difficult to produce enough young to maintain safe numbers due to the rapid demand (Evan 2014). The Mediterranean Sea is where tunas spawn. There are many species that gather there in summer, which poses a problem for the fishing industry. However, this can also have serious consequences. Illegal fishing continues even though the Atlantic Tuna is now regulated to repopulate. This is why illegal, unregulated, or unreported fishing contributes to the decline in this species. Poor regulation means that fisheries can take more than they need. Illegal fishing takes 20%, while fisheries take about 50%. These fish are being taken on large-scales, which is threatening the abundance of them (WWF 2018,). Becerra 5-sturgeon are a very popular breed that can be used to collect roe which is then made into caviar. Caviar, the unfertilized sturgeon egg, is called Caviar. Caviar can be expensive and a delicacy that many people love, but this has made it a threat to endangered species. This can result in the death or mutilation this lively creature when it comes to extracting roe. Some species of Sturgeon become more attractive to poaching and overfishing when they reach sexual maturity between 6-25 years of age. WWF 2017 The beautiful creature can live for as long as 100 years and can grow to around 7-12 feet. However, the 70% reduction in numbers over the last century means that it’s possible they won’t be seen much (WWF2018). Even though caviar is now illegal in Bulgaria, illegal trade continues to make a profit. Caviar is being seized in large quantities from areas where they are prohibited from being captured and harvested. (Protect Danube’s Treasure, Unknown)

The loss of their breeding grounds and lack of regulation have made species such as the Beluga Sturgeon vulnerable. Therefore, exporting goods is a risky business. Bycatch can be defined as a situation in which something is not intended to get caught and caught in netting. This is most commonly a problem for seabirds, sharks, turtles, and dolphins. (WWF 2018,) Sometimes, the wrong species can be caught when netting or other forms of fishing are used. The animal may become stressed and then die if it isn’t handled correctly.

Additionally, animals that become entangled with netting cause stress in their lives and make themselves more complicated. Soon their motion stops and they end up dying. While some animals can swim away from the net, others are left with netting in large or small quantities that can impact their daily activities, eating, and swimming. Many species are soon endangered when they are caught in the netting. Some dolphin species are threatened and require further action. (WWF 2018.) The Ocean is being decimated and many people aren’t aware of it. We prefer to ignore the fact that overfishing, climate change, and invasive species are all happening. Every step that we take toward a better future is affecting others. The Ocean does not have a voice. Therefore, we must be the voice of the Ocean. We must take action to ensure that those who come after us have a better ocean experience. The existence of all things is a right and they have no right not to be given that. There are better options to get the resources they need. We are looking into ways to increase the production of biodegradable products and solar energy. A safer way to collect caviar is to gently massage the eggs from the female sturgeon’s vagina. Because of the speed of processing, slitting open fish’s bellies is a faster way to do this. This is not a common practice in many fisheries. Citizens can check equipment for hitchhiking species. Better support can make our ocean a better environment.